Collations

Collations essentially affect the string attribute comparisons. They specify both the character set encoding and the strategy that Manticore uses to compare strings when doing ORDER BY or GROUP BY with a string attribute involved.

String attributes are stored as is when indexing, and no character set or language information is attached to them. That's okay as long as Manticore only needs to store and return the strings to the calling application verbatim. But when you ask Manticore to sort by a string value, that request immediately becomes quite ambiguous.

First, single-byte (ASCII, or ISO-8859-1, or Windows-1251) strings need to be processed differently that the UTF-8 ones that may encode every character with a variable number of bytes. So we need to know what is the character set type to interpret the raw bytes as meaningful characters properly.

Second, we additionally need to know the language-specific string sorting rules. For instance, when sorting according to US rules in en_US locale, the accented character ï (small letter i with diaeresis) should be placed somewhere after z. However, when sorting with French rules and fr_FR locale in mind, it should be placed between i and j. And some other set of rules might choose to ignore accents at all, allowing ï and i to be mixed arbitrarily.

Third, but not least, we might need case-sensitive sorting in some scenarios and case-insensitive sorting in some others.

Collations combine all of the above: the character set, the language rules, and the case sensitivity. Manticore currently provides the following four collations.

  1. libc_ci
  2. libc_cs
  3. utf8_general_ci
  4. binary

The first two collations rely on several standard C library (libc) calls and can thus support any locale that is installed on your system. They provide case-insensitive (_ci) and case-sensitive (_cs) comparisons respectively. By default they will use C locale, effectively resorting to bytewise comparisons. To change that, you need to specify a different available locale using collation_libc_locale directive. The list of locales available on your system can usually be obtained with the locale command:

$ locale -a
C
en_AG
en_AU.utf8
en_BW.utf8
en_CA.utf8
en_DK.utf8
en_GB.utf8
en_HK.utf8
en_IE.utf8
en_IN
en_NG
en_NZ.utf8
en_PH.utf8
en_SG.utf8
en_US.utf8
en_ZA.utf8
en_ZW.utf8
es_ES
fr_FR
POSIX
ru_RU.utf8
ru_UA.utf8

The specific list of the system locales may vary. Consult your OS documentation to install additional needed locales.

utf8_general_ci and binary locales are built-in into Manticore. The first one is a generic collation for UTF-8 data (without any so-called language tailoring); it should behave similar to utf8_general_ci collation in MySQL. The second one is a simple bytewise comparison.

Collation can be overridden via SQL on a per-session basis using SET collation_connection statement. All subsequent SQL queries will use this collation. Otherwise all queries will use the server default collation or as specified in collation_server configuration directive. Manticore currently defaults to libc_ci collation.

Collations affect all string attribute comparisons, including those within ORDER BY and GROUP BY, so differently ordered or grouped results can be returned depending on the collation chosen. Note that collations don't affect full-text searching, for that use charset_table

Updating index schema

Updating index schema in RT mode

ALTER TABLE index ADD COLUMN column_name [{INTEGER|INT|BIGINT|FLOAT|BOOL|MULTI|MULTI64|JSON|STRING|TIMESTAMP|TEXT [INDEXED [ATTRIBUTE]]}] [engine='columnar']

ALTER TABLE index DROP COLUMN column_name

It supports adding one field at a time for RT indexes. Supported data types are:

  • int - integer attribute
  • timestamp - timestamp attribute
  • bigint - big integer attribute
  • float - float attribute
  • bool - boolean attribute
  • multi - multi-valued integer attribute
  • multi64 - multi-valued bigint attribute
  • json - json attribute
  • string / text attribute / string attribute - string attribute
  • text / text indexed stored / string indexed stored - full-text indexed field with original value stored in docstore
  • text indexed / string indexed - full-text indexed field, indexed only (the original value is not stored in docstore)
  • text indexed attribute / string indexed attribute - full text indexed field + string attribute (not storing the original value in docstore)
  • text stored / string stored - the value will be only stored in docstore, not full-text indexed, not a string attribute
  • adding engine='columnar' to any attribute (except for json) will make it stored in the columnar storage

Important notes:

  • Querying an index is impossible while a column is being added.
  • Newly created attribute's values are set to 0.
  • ALTER will not work for distributed indexes and indexes without any attributes.
  • DROP COLUMN will fail if an index has only one field.
  • When dropping a field which is both a full-text field and a string attribute the first ALTER DROP drops the attribute, the second one drops the full-text field.
  • Adding/dropping full-text field is only supported in RT mode.
  • Example
Example
📋

mysql> desc rt;
+------------+-----------+
| Field      | Type      |
+------------+-----------+
| id         | bigint    |
| text       | field     |
| group_id   | uint      |
| date_added | timestamp |
+------------+-----------+

mysql> alter table rt add column test integer;

mysql> desc rt;
+------------+-----------+
| Field      | Type      |
+------------+-----------+
| id         | bigint    |
| text       | field     |
| group_id   | uint      |
| date_added | timestamp |
| test       | uint      |
+------------+-----------+

mysql> alter table rt drop column group_id;

mysql> desc rt;
+------------+-----------+
| Field      | Type      |
+------------+-----------+
| id         | bigint    |
| text       | field     |
| date_added | timestamp |
| test       | uint      |
+------------+-----------+

mysql> alter table rt add column title text indexed;

mysql> desc rt;
+------------+-----------+------------+
| Field      | Type      | Properties |
+------------+-----------+------------+
| id         | bigint    |            |
| text       | text      | indexed    |
| title      | text      | indexed    |
| date_added | timestamp |            |
| test       | uint      |            |
+------------+-----------+------------+

mysql> alter table rt add column title text attribute;

mysql> desc rt;
+------------+-----------+------------+
| Field      | Type      | Properties |
+------------+-----------+------------+
| id         | bigint    |            |
| text       | text      | indexed    |
| title      | text      | indexed    |
| date_added | timestamp |            |
| test       | uint      |            |
| title      | string    |            |
+------------+-----------+------------+

mysql> alter table rt drop column title;

mysql> desc rt;
+------------+-----------+------------+
| Field      | Type      | Properties |
+------------+-----------+------------+
| id         | bigint    |            |
| text       | text      | indexed    |
| title      | text      | indexed    |
| date_added | timestamp |            |
| test       | uint      |            |
+------------+-----------+------------+
mysql> alter table rt drop column title;

mysql> desc rt;
+------------+-----------+------------+
| Field      | Type      | Properties |
+------------+-----------+------------+
| id         | bigint    |            |
| text       | text      | indexed    |
| date_added | timestamp |            |
| test       | uint      |            |
+------------+-----------+------------+

Updating index FT settings in RT mode

ALTER RTINDEX index ft_setting='value'[, ft_setting2='value']

You can also use ALTER to modify full-text settings of your index in RT mode. Just remember that it doesn't affect existing documents, it only affects new ones. Take a look at the example where we:

  • create an index with a full-text field and charset_table that allows only 3 searchable characters: a, b and c.
  • then we insert document 'abcd' and find it by query abcd, the d just gets ignored since it's not in the charset_table array
  • then we understand, that we want d to be searchable too, so we add it with help of ALTER
  • but the same query where match('abcd') still says it searched by abc, because the existing document remembers previous contents of charset_table
  • then we add another document abcd and search by abcd again
  • now it finds the both documents and show meta says it used two keywords: abc (to find the old document) and abcd (for the new one).
  • Example
Example
📋
mysql> create table rt(title text) charset_table='a,b,c';

mysql> insert into rt(title) values('abcd');

mysql> select * from rt where match('abcd');
+---------------------+-------+
| id                  | title |
+---------------------+-------+
| 1514630637682688054 | abcd  |
+---------------------+-------+

mysql> show meta;
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| total         | 1     |
| total_found   | 1     |
| time          | 0.000 |
| keyword[0]    | abc   |
| docs[0]       | 1     |
| hits[0]       | 1     |
+---------------+-------+

mysql> alter table rt charset_table='a,b,c,d';
mysql> select * from rt where match('abcd');
+---------------------+-------+
| id                  | title |
+---------------------+-------+
| 1514630637682688054 | abcd  |
+---------------------+-------+

mysql> show meta
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| total         | 1     |
| total_found   | 1     |
| time          | 0.000 |
| keyword[0]    | abc   |
| docs[0]       | 1     |
| hits[0]       | 1     |
+---------------+-------+

mysql> insert into rt(title) values('abcd');
mysql> select * from rt where match('abcd');
+---------------------+-------+
| id                  | title |
+---------------------+-------+
| 1514630637682688055 | abcd  |
| 1514630637682688054 | abcd  |
+---------------------+-------+

mysql> show meta;
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| total         | 2     |
| total_found   | 2     |
| time          | 0.000 |
| keyword[0]    | abc   |
| docs[0]       | 1     |
| hits[0]       | 1     |
| keyword[1]    | abcd  |
| docs[1]       | 1     |
| hits[1]       | 1     |
+---------------+-------+

Updating index FT settings in plain mode

ALTER RTINDEX index RECONFIGURE

ALTER can also reconfigure an RT index in plain mode, so that new tokenization, morphology and other text processing settings from the configuration file take effect for new documents. Note, that the existing document will be left intact. Internally, it forcibly saves the current RAM chunk as a new disk chunk and adjusts the index header, so that new documents are tokenized using the updated full-text settings.

  • Example
Example
📋
mysql> show index rt settings;
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| settings      |       |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> alter rtindex rt reconfigure;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> show index rt settings;
+---------------+----------------------+
| Variable_name | Value                |
+---------------+----------------------+
| settings      | morphology = stem_en |
+---------------+----------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Functions