Stop words are words that are ignored during indexing and searching, typically due to their high frequency and low value to search results.
Manticore Search applies stemming to stop words by default, which can lead to undesired results, but this can be turned off using the stopwords_unstemmed.
Small stop word files are stored in the table header, and there is a limit to the size of files that can be embedded, as defined by the embedded_limit option.
Stop words are not indexed, but they do affect keyword positions. For example, if "the" is a stop word, and document 1 contains the phrase "in office" while document 2 contains the phrase "in the office," searching for "in office" as an exact phrase will only return the first document, even though "the" is skipped as a stop word in the second document. This behavior can be modified using the stopword_step directive.
stopwords=path/to/stopwords/file[ path/to/another/file ...]
The stopwords setting is optional and by default empty. It allows you to specify the path to one or more stop word files, separated by spaces. All the files will be loaded. In the real-time mode, only absolute paths are allowed.
The stop word file format is simple plain text with UTF-8 encoding. The file data will be tokenized with respect to the charset_table settings, so you can use the same separators as in the indexed data.
Stop word files can be created manually or semi-automatically. The indexer provides a mode that creates a frequency dictionary of the table, sorted by the keyword frequency. Top keywords from that dictionary can usually be used as stop words. See --buildstops and --buildfreqs switch for details. Top keywords from that dictionary can usually be used as stop words.
CREATE TABLE products(title text, price float) stopwords = '/usr/local/manticore/data/stopwords.txt /usr/local/manticore/data/stopwords-ru.txt /usr/local/manticore/data/stopwords-en.txt'
Alternatively you can use one of the default stop word files that come with Manticore. Currently stop words for 50 languages are available. Here is the full list of aliases for them:
- af - Afrikaans
- ar - Arabic
- bg - Bulgarian
- bn - Bengali
- ca - Catalan
- ckb- Kurdish
- cz - Czech
- da - Danish
- de - German
- el - Greek
- en - English
- eo - Esperanto
- es - Spain
- et - Estonian
- eu - Basque
- fa - Persian
- fi - Finnish
- fr - French
- ga - Irish
- gl - Galician
- hi - Hindi
- he - Hebrew
- hr - Croatian
- hu - Hungarian
- hy - Armenian
- id - Indonesian
- it - Italian
- ja - Japanese
- ko - Korean
- la - Latin
- lt - Lithuanian
- lv - Latvian
- mr - Marathi
- nl - Dutch
- no - Norwegian
- pl - Polish
- pt - Portuguese
- ro - Romanian
- ru - Russian
- sk - Slovak
- sl - Slovenian
- so - Somali
- st - Sotho
- sv - Swedish
- sw - Swahili
- th - Thai
- tr - Turkish
- yo - Yoruba
- zh - Chinese
- zu - Zulu
For example, to use stop words for Italian language just put the following line in your config file:
CREATE TABLE products(title text, price float) stopwords = 'it'
If you need to use stop words for multiple languages you should list all their aliases, separated with commas (RT mode) or spaces (plain mode):
CREATE TABLE products(title text, price float) stopwords = 'en, it, ru'
The position_increment setting on stopwords is optional, and the allowed values are 0 and 1, with the default being 1.
CREATE TABLE products(title text, price float) stopwords = 'en' stopword_step = '1'
Whether to apply stop words before or after stemming. Optional, default is 0 (apply stop word filter after stemming).
By default, stop words are stemmed themselves, and then applied to tokens after stemming (or any other morphology processing). This means that a token is stopped when stem(token) is equal to stem(stopword). This default behavior can lead to unexpected results when a token is erroneously stemmed to a stopped root. For example, "Andes" might get stemmed to "and", so when "and" is a stopword, "Andes" is also skipped.
However, you can change this behavior by enabling the
stopwords_unstemmed directive. When this is enabled, stop words are applied before stemming (and therefore to the original word forms), and the tokens are skipped when the token is equal to the stopword.
CREATE TABLE products(title text, price float) stopwords = 'en' stopwords_unstemmed = '1'
Word forms are applied after tokenizing incoming text by charset_table rules. They essentially let you replace one word with another. Normally, that would be used to bring different word forms to a single normal form (e.g. to normalize all the variants such as "walks", "walked", "walking" to the normal form "walk"). It can also be used to implement stemming exceptions, because stemming is not applied to words found in the forms list.
wordforms = path/to/wordforms.txt wordforms = path/to/alternateforms.txt wordforms = path/to/dict*.txt
Word forms dictionary. Optional, default is empty.
The dictionaries are used to normalize incoming words both during indexing and searching. Therefore, when it comes to a plain table, it's required to rotate the table in order to pick up changes in the word forms file.
Word forms support in Manticore is designed to handle large dictionaries well. They moderately affect indexing speed; for example, a dictionary with 1 million entries slows down indexing by about 1.5 times. Searching speed is not affected at all. The additional RAM impact is roughly equal to the dictionary file size, and dictionaries are shared across tables. For instance, if the very same 50 MB word forms file is specified for 10 different tables, the additional
searchd RAM usage will be about 50 MB.
The dictionary file should be in a simple plain text format. Each line should contain source and destination word forms, in UTF-8 encoding, separated by a "greater than" sign. Rules from the charset_table will be applied when the file is loaded, so if you are using built-in
charset_table options, it is typically case-insensitive, just like your other full-text indexed data. Here is a sample file contents:
walks > walk walked > walk walking > walk
There is a bundled utility called Spelldump that helps you create a dictionary file in a format that Manticore can read. The utility can read from source
.aff dictionary files in the
MySpell format, as bundled with OpenOffice.
You can map several source words to a single destination word. The process happens on tokens, not the source text, so differences in whitespace and markup are ignored.
You can use the
=> symbol instead of
>. Comments (starting with
#) are also allowed. Finally, if a line starts with a tilde (
~), the wordform will be applied after morphology, instead of before (note that only a single source word is supported in this case).
core 2 duo > c2d e6600 > c2d core 2duo => c2d # Some people write '2duo' together... ~run > walk # Along with stem_en morphology enabled replaces 'run', 'running', 'runs' (and any other words that stem to just 'run') to 'walk'
You can specify multiple destination tokens:
s02e02 > season 2 episode 2 s3 e3 > season 3 episode 3
You can specify multiple files, not just one. Masks can be used as a pattern, and all matching files will be processed in simple ascending order.
In the RT mode, only absolute paths are allowed.
If multi-byte codepages are used and file names include foreign characters, the resulting order may not be exactly alphabetic. If the same wordform definition is found in multiple files, the latter one is used and overrides previous definitions.
CREATE TABLE products(title text, price float) wordforms = '/var/lib/manticore/wordforms.txt' wordforms = '/var/lib/manticore/alternateforms.txt /var/lib/manticore/dict*.txt'
Exceptions (also known as synonyms) allow mapping one or more tokens (including tokens with characters that would normally be excluded) to a single keyword. They are similar to wordforms in that they also perform mapping but have a number of important differences.
A short summary of the differences from wordforms is as follows:
|Case sensitive||Case insensitive|
|Can use special characters that are not in charset_table||Fully obey charset_table|
|Underperform on huge dictionaries||Designed to handle millions of entries|
exceptions = path/to/exceptions.txt
Tokenizing exceptions file. Optional, the default is empty. In the RT mode, only absolute paths are allowed.
The expected file format is plain text, with one line per exception. The line format is as follows:
map-from-tokens => map-to-token
at & t => at&t AT&T => AT&T Standarten Fuehrer => standartenfuhrer Standarten Fuhrer => standartenfuhrer MS Windows => ms windows Microsoft Windows => ms windows C++ => cplusplus c++ => cplusplus C plus plus => cplusplus
All tokens here are case sensitive and will not be processed by charset_table rules. Thus, with the example exceptions file above, the "at&t" text will be tokenized as two keywords "at" and "t" due to lowercase letters. On the other hand, "AT&T" will match exactly and produce a single "AT&T" keyword.
Note that this map-to keyword:
- is always interpreted as a single word
- is both case and space sensitive
In our sample, "ms windows" query will not match the document with "MS Windows" text. The query will be interpreted as a query for two keywords, "ms" and "windows". The mapping for "MS Windows" is a single keyword "ms windows", with a space in the middle. On the other hand, "standartenfuhrer" will retrieve documents with "Standarten Fuhrer" or "Standarten Fuehrer" contents (capitalized exactly like this), or any capitalization variant of the keyword itself, e.g., "staNdarTenfUhreR". (It won't catch "standarten fuhrer", however: this text does not match any of the listed exceptions because of case sensitivity and gets indexed as two separate keywords.)
The whitespace in the map-from tokens list matters, but its amount does not. Any amount of whitespace in the map-form list will match any other amount of whitespace in the indexed document or query. For instance, the "AT & T" map-from token will match "AT & T" text, whatever the amount of space in both map-from part and the indexed text. Such text will, therefore, be indexed as a special "AT&T" keyword, thanks to the very first entry from the sample.
Exceptions also allow capturing special characters (that are exceptions from general charset_table rules; hence the name). Assume that you generally do not want to treat '+' as a valid character, but still want to be able to search for some exceptions from this rule such as 'C++'. The sample above will do just that, totally independent of what characters are in the table and what are not.
Therefore, when it comes to a plain table, it's required to rotate the table in order to pick up changes in the exceptions file.
CREATE TABLE products(title text, price float) exceptions = '/usr/local/manticore/data/exceptions.txt'