Creating a local index

There are 2 different approaches to deal with indexes in Manticore:

Online schema management (RT mode)

Real-time mode requires no index definition in the configuration file, but presence of data_dir directive in searchd section is mandatory. Index files are stored inside the data_dir.

Replication is available only in this mode.

In this mode you can use SQL commands like CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE and DROP TABLE to create and change index schema and drop it. This mode is especially useful for real-time and percolate indexes.

Index names are case insensitive in RT mode.

Defining index schema in config (Plain mode)

In this mode you can specify index schema in config which will be read on Manticore start and if the index doesn't exist yet it will be created. This mode is especially useful for plain indexes that are built upon indexing data from an external storage.

Dropping indexes is only possible by removing them from the configuration file or by removing the path setting and sending a HUP signal to the server or restarting it.

Index names are case sensitive in this mode.

All index types are supported in this mode.

Index types and modes

Index type RT mode Plain mode
Real-time supported supported
Plain not supported supported
Percolate supported supported
Distributed supported supported
Template not supported supported

Real-time index

Real-time index is a main type of Manticore indexes. It allows adding, updating and deleting documents with immediate availability of the changes. Real-time index settings can be defined in a configuration file or online via CREATE/UPDATE/DELETE/ALTER commands.

Real-time index internally consists of one or multiple plain indexes called chunks. There can be:

  • multiple disk chunks. They are stored on disk with the same structure as any plain index
  • single ram chunk. Stored in memory and used as an accumulator of changes

RAM chunk size is controlled by rt_mem_limit. Once the limit is exceeded the RAM chunk is flushed to disk in a form of a disk chunk. When there are too many disk chunks they can be merged into one for better performance using command OPTIMIZE.

  • SQL
  • HTTP
  • PHP
  • Python
  • Javascript
  • Java
CREATE TABLE products(title text, price float) morphology='stem_en';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Creating a real-time index via JSON over HTTP:

👍 What you can do with a real-time index:

⛔ What you cannot do with a real-time index:

  • Index data with help of indexer
  • Link it with sources for easy indexing from external storages
  • Update it's killlist_target, it's just not needed as the real-time index takes controls of it automatically

Real-time index files structure

Extension Description
.lock lock file
.ram RAM chunk
.meta RT index headers
.*.sp* disk chunks (see plain index format)

Plain index

Plain index is a basic element for non-percolate searching. It can be specified only in a configuration file in Plain mode. It is not supported in RT mode. It's normally used together with a source to index data from an external storage and afterwards can be attached to a real-time index.

👍 What you can do with a plain index:

⛔ What you cannot do with a plain index:

  • insert more data into an index after it's built
  • delete data from it
  • create/delete/alter a plain index online (you need to define it in a configuration file)
  • use UUID for automatic ID generation. When you fetch data from an external storage it must include a unique identifier for each document

Except numeric attributes (including MVA), the rest of the data in a plain index is immutable. If you need to update/add new records you need to rebuild the index. While index is being rebuilt, existing index is still available for serving requests. When a new version of the index is ready, a process called rotation is performed which puts the new version online and discards the old one.

  • Plain index example
Plain index example

A plain index can be only defined in a configuration file. It's not supported by command CREATE TABLE

source source {
  type             = mysql
  sql_host         = localhost
  sql_user         = myuser
  sql_pass         = mypass
  sql_db           = mydb
  sql_query        = SELECT id, title, description, category_id  from mytable
  sql_attr_uint    = category_id
  sql_field_string = title

index idx {
  type   = plain
  source = source
  path   = /path/to/index

Plain indexing performance

Speed of plain indexing depends on several factors:

  • how fast the source can be providing the data
  • tokenization settings
  • your hardware (CPU, amount of RAM, disk performance)

Plain indexing scenarios

Rebuild fully when needed

In the simplest usage scenario, we would use a single plain index which we just fully rebuild from time to time. It works fine for smaller data sets and if you are ready that:

  • the index will be not as fresh as data in the source
  • indexing duration grows with the data, the more data you have in the source the longer it will take to build the index

If you have a bigger data set and still want to use a plain index rather than Real-Time what you can do is:

  • make another smaller index for incremental indexing
  • combine the both using a distributed index

What it can give is you can rebuild the bigger index seldom (say once per week), save the position of the freshest indexed document and after that use the smaller index to index anything new or updated from your source. Since you will only need to fetch the updates from your storage you can do it much more frequently (say once per minute or even each few seconds).

But after a while the smaller indexing duration will become too high and that will be the moment when you need to rebuild the bigger index and empty the smaller one.

This is called main+delta schema and you can learn more about it in this interactive course.

When you build a smaller "delta" index it can get documents that are already in the "main" index. To let Manticore know that documents from the current index should take precedence there's a mechanism called kill list and corresponding directive killlist_target.

More information on this topic can be found here.

Plain index files structure

Extension Description
.spa stores document attributes in row-wise mode
.spb stores blob attributes in row-wise mode: strings, MVA, json
.spc stores document attributes in columnar mode
.spd stores matching document ID lists for each word ID
.sph stores index header information
.sphi stores histograms of attribute values
.spi stores word lists (word IDs and pointers to .spd file)
.spidx stores secondary indexes data
.spk stores kill-lists
.spl lock file
.spm stores a bitmap of killed documents
.spp stores hit (aka posting, aka word occurrence) lists for each word ID
.spt stores additional data structures to speed up lookups by document ids
.spe stores skip-lists to speed up doc-list filtering
.spds stores document texts
.tmp* temporary files during index_settings_and_status
.new.sp* new version of a plain index before rotation
.old.sp* old version of a plain index after rotation